Before Christmas Was in America

Taken from “Customs and Fashions in Old New England.”
Chapter, Colonial Christmases
Written by, Alice Morse Earle


The first century of colonial life saw few set times and days for pleasure.

The holy days of the English Church were as a stench to the Puritan nostrils, and their public celebration was at once rigidly forbidden by the laws of New England. New holidays were not quickly evolved, and the sober gatherings for matters of Church and State for a time took their place. The hatred of “wanton Bacchanalian Christmasses” spent throughout England, as Cotton said, in reveling, dicing, carding, masking, mumming, consumed in compotation’s [heavy drinking], in interludes, in excess of wine, in mad mirth,” was the natural reaction of intelligent and thoughtful minds against the excesses of a festival which had ceased to be a Christian holiday, but was dominated by a lord of mis-rule who did not hesitate to invade the churches in time of service, in his noisy revels and sports.

English Churchmen long ago revolted also against such Christmas observance. Of the first Pilgrim Christmas we know but little, save that it was spent, as was many a later one, in work….

By 1659 the Puritans had grown to hate Christmas more and more; it was, to use Shakespeare’s words, “the bug that feared them all.” The very name smacked to them of incense, stole, and monkish jargon; any person who observed it as a holiday by forbearing of labor, feasting, or any other way was to pay five shillings fine, so desirous were they to “beate down every sprout of Episcopacie.”

Judge Sewall watched jealously the feeling of the people with regard to Christmas, and noted with pleasure on each succeeding year the continuance of common traffic throughout the day.  Such entries as this show his attitude: “Dec. 25, 1685. Carts come to town and shops open as usual. Some somehow observe the day, but are vexed I believe that the Body of people profane it, and blessed be God no authority yet to compel them to keep it.”

When the Church of England established Christmas services in Boston a few years later, we find the Judge waging hopeless war against Governor Belcher over it, and hear him praising his son for not going with other friends to hear the novel and attractive services. He says: ” I dehort mine from Christmas keeping and charge them to forbear.”

Christmas could not be regarded until the 19th century as a New England holiday, though in certain localities, such as old Narragansett” an opulent community which was settled by Episcopalians” two weeks of Christmas visiting and Feasting were entered into with zest for many years previous to the revolution.


 Written by William Drummond

Run, shepherds, run where Bethlehem blest appears.
We bring the best of news; be not dismayed:

A Savior there is born more old than years,

Amidst heaven’s rolling height this earth who stayed.
In a poor cottage inned, a virgin maid,
A weakling did him bear, though all he upbears;
There is he poorly swaddled, in manger laid.
To whom too narrow swaddlings are our spheres: 

Run, shepherds, run, and solemnize his birth.
This is that night “no, day, grown great with bliss.

In which the power of Satan broken is:
In heaven be glory, peace unto the earth! 

Thus singing, through the air the angels swarm.
And cope of stars re-echoed the same.

Or say, if this new Birth of ours Sleeps, 
laid within some ark of flowers,
Spangled with dew-light; thou canst clear

All doubts, and manifest the where.
Declare to us, bright star, if we shall seek
Him in the morning’s blushing cheek,
Or search the beds of spices through.
To find him out?

Star: “No, this ye need not do;
But only come and see Him rest,
A princely babe, in’s mother’s breast.