Who Are the Huguenots?

Taken and adapted from the blog, “Virginia is for Huguenots”

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‘Huguenot’ is a term that came into use around 1560 to describe members of the French Reformed (Protestant) Church.

There are several theories about the origin of the term. Some believe that it morphed from the German Eidgenosse (‘confederates’ or ‘oath-fellows), while other posit a French etymological origin. Regardless, the term became (much like the words Christian and Puritan, a term both of derision and a badge of honor.

French Huguenots are simply a branch of the Reformation. For a time they were also known as “Lutherans,” since they broke from the Roman Catholic Church and followed the Scriptures as Martin Luther did likewise; but as the Reformation went on, those in France would give heed to the teachings of the Reformer John Calvin, as they diverged from Luther on points relating to the Lord’s Supper, church government, church-state relations, and worship. Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536-1559) laid out the theology of French Protestantism, and became a standard reference. The French Reformed Church, also with Calvin’s assistance, published the Gallic Confession of Faith (1559), which articulated the chief points of Huguenot theology.

Calvin, meanwhile, along with many other Protestants had to flee France for his own safety. Catholic France persecuted the Huguenots severely by outlawing the Protestant religion, executing many martyrs, and banning Reformed literature, the Bible in French, and even psalm-singing, which was a hallmark of the Huguenots. After the 1534 Affair of the Placards, Calvin ended up in francophone Geneva, Switzerland, where he would spend most of the rest of his life. Persecution of those Huguenots who remained in France was especially hot in the 1550s, and from 1562 to 1598, France was rent by eight Wars of Religion between the Catholics and Protestants. At the height of the persecution, thousands of Huguenots were slaughtered during the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of 1572.

The loyalty of French Huguenots to the crown of France was tested during these religious and political struggles. Huguenots were forced to address the question of church-state relations, and whether resistance to tyranny was Biblical. Calvin’s Institutes put forth the theory of interposition of lesser civil magistrates, earlier set forth by Augustine, whereby the people were not to resist a tyrant by force on their own, but lesser magistrates were to use the sword, if necessary, to defend the people from such a tyrant. Treatises by Francis Hotman, Theodore Beza and the author of “Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos” (A Defense of Liberty Against Tyrants) [1579] — thought by many to be Philippe Du-Plessis-Mornay — also strengthened the Protestant theory of resistance to tyranny (and would later influence both the Dutch and American Wars of Independence). Samuel Rutherford, a Scottish Covenanter, would later write his famous book enlarging on the theory of “Lex, Rex,” that is, the law is over the king, meaning that the king is accountable to the law, which is the constitutional theory of government espoused by French Huguenots.

What motivated the Huguenots on the battlefields, as well as in their homes and hearths, was a fierce love of God, his laws, his worship, his church, and all of his institutions in society.

Freedom of conscience to worship God according to the Scriptures was a principle that would be shared by the French Huguenots and Scottish Covenanters, who shed their blood to resist tyranny both in church and in state. John Calvin represented the Huguenot party historically, while his friend John Knox — who spent time in Geneva and called it “the most perfect school of Christ that was ever on earth since the days of the Apostles” — represented the Covenanters; both were often known as Reformed or Calvinists.

The Huguenots, were a people in awe of the holiness of God, and not a little comforted in their sufferings by the sovereignty of God. They looked to the Bible as the sole authority of faith, worship and life, and found in the Psalms a God-given “hymnal,” which Calvin was at great pains to versify for easier congregational singing, with help from Clement Marot, Theodore Beza, Louis Bourgeois, and others. Psalmody became such a badge of the Huguenots that John Quick writes:

This holy Ordinance charmed the Ears, Hearts and Affections of Court and City, Town and Country. They were sung in the Louvre, as well as in the Pres des Clerks, by the Ladies, Princes, yea and by Henry the Second himself. This one Ordinance only contributed mightily to the downfall of Popery, and the propagation of the Gospel. It took so much with the genius of the Nation, that all ranks and degrees of Men practised it in the Temples [churches] and in their Families. No Gentleman professing the Reformed Religion, would sit down at his Table without praising God by singing. Yea it was a special part of their Morning and Evening Worship, in their several houses, to sing God’s Praises. (Synodicon in Gallia Reformata, Vol. 1, p. v.)

The Huguenots adhered to Presbyterian church government, but strived to maintain unity with all Reformed Churches. They were prohibited from attending the 1618-1619 Dutch Synod of Dort by the French King, but empty chairs were placed in their honor and they remained empty throughout the proceedings. The Huguenots received a measure of peace after the 1598 Edict of Nantes, but their limited religious liberties were eroded over time. Huguenots retreated to strongholds and enclaves, the greatest of which was the city of La Rochelle. However, King Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu found a pretext to launch a full-scale siege of the city (1627-1628). La Rochelle’s downfall was the beginning of the end of the French Huguenots in France.

Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685 causing thousands of Huguenots to flee the country. There was another period of resistance known as the War of the Camisards (French Huguenots who fought the king’s dragoons in the Cevennes area from 1702 to 1715). But the Huguenot Diaspora, which began in 1685, led to a mass emigration, draining France of many of its artisans and intellectuals. What was France’s loss became the world’s gain. Huguenots streamed into England, Ireland, Holland, Germany, America, South Africa and elsewhere, where they would become good citizens and valuable contributors to society (at one point there were more French Huguenots in Berlin than Germans, and elsewhere at one time a quarter of the population of New York City was French Huguenot). Indeed, many settled in Virginia, where a parish was set up with religious liberties for Huguenots (in an Anglican colony) near Richmond, called Manakintowne. New Rochelle and New Paltz, New York became centers of Huguenot immigration, as did coastal areas of North and South Carolina. French Huguenot-founded churches still exist today in New York City; Manakin, VA; and Charleston, SC.

French Huguenot blood flowed through many Presidents and heroes of American history. The legacy of the French Huguenot also remains in the witness of the Reformed Faith worldwide. There are still some Protestants in France who cherish their Huguenot heritage. But those who, as Calvin did, acknowledge that they live by the grace of God, and who also love the land of Calvin and the history of this race of noble people, nevertheless adhere to the words of Charles Spurgeon, who wrote, “Be not proud of race, face, place or grace.” It was a saying of the Scottish Covenanters they fought “For Christ’s Crown & Covenant.” The Huguenots of La Rochelle and elsewhere had their own saying: “Pro Christo et Pro Grege” (“For Christ and the Flock”).

The Elect: Chosen as God’s Firstfruits

Taken and adapted from, “An Antidote Against Arminianism or A Treatise to Enervate and Confute All The Five Points of It” Written by, Christopher Ness; London, published 1700.
Posted on June 22, 2015 by Paul D. Posted in “The Dead Puritan Society”

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“But we ought always to give thanks to God for you, brothers beloved by the Lord, because God chose you as the firstfruits to be saved, through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth.”
–2 Thessalonians 2:13 (ESV)

God hath in all ages given us examples of His free receiving some of mankind and rejecting others…

…this is plain from Scripture history. Of Adam’s three sons, Cain, Abel, Seth, the eldest was rejected. Of Noah’s three, Japheth, Shem and Ham, the youngest was rejected. Of Terah’s three, Abraham, Nahor, Haran, the middlemost was rejected; for Nahor was an idolater, and Laban sware by Nahor’s idol (compare Ge 31:53 with Jos 24:2). Now why this picking and choosing, this receiving and rejecting; eldest at one time, youngest at another time, and middlemost at a third time? What is all this but to show that neither birth nor age, nor anything foreseen or existing in the creature, can produce any claim, but that all lies in the free election of God!

We can give no reason, save the good pleasure of God, why Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar (both engaged in the same warfare against Israel, the church of God) had different dispensations of Heaven upon them; the one was hardened and the other humbled; why Pharaoh’s baker was hanged and his butler restored to his office again; why two men shall be in one bed, the one taken, the other left; why two women shall be grinding at one mill, the one taken, the other left; why Aaron’s rod, of all twelve, only blossomed.

Eternal life is the gift of God (Romans 6:23); He doth not sell it for foreseen faith or works, but He freely gives it. Now if all these fruits of election be free, then the election itself to these fruits must be free also. If faith be the free gift of God (Eph. 2:8), then predestination to faith must of necessity be also free, for God worketh all things according to the counsel of His own will (Eph. 1:11).

Christian believer, there is much comfort and establishment to be drawn from a view of the freeness of the grace of God; then:

1.  Admire free grace in this decree of predestination, and cry, How is it, Lord, that Thou dost manifest Thyself and Thy love to me, and not unto the world (John 14:22)?

2.  Thou makest not thyself to differ from others, but free grace does it for thee. Thou art a lump of clay in the hands of the potter, no better than others; yea, pressed down to hell by Adam’s fall; that God should lift thee up to Heaven, be thankful.

3.  Rejoice in the Lord, sing to the honour of His great name, and live to His praise and glory. Did David dance before the Lord with all his might? Did he say to Michael, “It was before the Lord, who chose me before your father, to appoint me ruler over… Israel; therefore will I play before the Lord” (2 Sa 6:14,21)? David’s appointment, at that time, was but to an earthly kingdom; thou art freely chosen to inherit a Heavenly: therefore I say rejoice.

In Loving Memory of Richard Baxter: His Trial, Last Hours, and His Final Song

Taken and adapted from, “The Christian Pioneer” Vol. 20.
Published in 1866

Flitting across the scenes of the English Rebellion, Restoration, and Revolution, three hundred and fifty years ago, we see the shadows of some of the greatest men that England ever produced.

Among these, as a preacher and writer, Richard Baxter was conspicuous. As a preacher his energy was most forcible and powerful—few being able to resist his appeals. As a writer no man, perhaps, ever wrote and printed so many good books. He was, however, like all other men, not without his failings; but these consisted chiefly in errors of judgment arising often from the spirit and manners of the age in which he lived, and never from evil intention. In our days his life and labors would have won for him universal admiration. To think of such a man being treated in the brutal manner he was at what was called his trial cannot but excite our wonder and indignation. But there never was an English Judge who disgraced the bench like Jeffreys. But verily the wretch, as Lord Macaulay has described, met with his reward.

“It had been determined before the death of Charles II, that Baxter should be imprisoned and tried, and he was actually on bail when that wretched king died. He was, by a warrant of Lord Chief Justice Jeffreys, committed to the King’s Bench for writing ‘ that scandalous, seditious book,’—so was it styled— ‘A Paraphrase on the New Testament.’ He was committed in February, and in May he was brought to his trial. In fact, nothing could be more innocent than the words for which he was indicted. He was indicted as ‘ Richard Baxter, a seditious and factious person, of a depraved mind, impious, iniquitous, of turbulent disposition and conversation, determined to break in the peace of the community and the tranquility of our Lord the King,’ etc. He was brought to trial before Jeffreys. His counsel had moved for more time. ‘I will not give him,’ said that drunken and blood-stained judge ‘ a minute’s time to save his life. We have had to do with other sorts of persons, but now we have a saint to deal with, and I know how to deal with saints as well as sinners. Yonder stands Oates in the pillory, and he says he suffers for the truth, and so says Baxter; but if Baxter did but stand on the other side of the pillory with him, I would say two of the greatest rogues and rascals in the kingdom stood there.’

On the 30th of May, Baxter was brought for trial. Sir Henry Ashurst had the courage to stand by him all the while. ‘When I saw,’ says another eye-witness, ‘the meek man stand before the flaming eyes and fierce looks of this judge, I thought of Paul before Nero. The barbarous usage which he received drew plenty of tears from my eyes, as well as from others of the auditors and spectators. He drove on furiously, pouring out contempt and scorn upon Baxter, as if he had been a link-boy or knave, which made the people who could not get near enough to hear the indictment or Mr. Baxter’s plea, exclaim, “Surely, this Baxter had burned the city.” But others said, it was not the custom now-a-days to receive ill, except for well-doing; and, therefore, this must needs be some good man that my lord rails so at.’

The obscenity, the vulgarity, and unrighteousness of the judge on the occasion of that trial, are well known. Before the trial of Baxter, a short cause was heard; and then the clerk called another cause. ‘You blockhead you,’ said the judge, ‘the next cause is between Baxter and the King.’ Some part of the ‘Paraphrase’ objected to was Mark 12: 38-40—’ And for a pretense make long prayers.’ Baxter made some remarks on liturgies. ‘Is he not now an old knave,’ said Jeffreys, ‘ to interpret this of liturgies. No, no,’ continued he, ‘it is their own long-winded extempore prayers, such as they used to say when they appropriated God to themselves. Lord, we are Thy people, Thy peculiar people, Thy dear people.’ And then he snorted, and squeaked through the nose, lifting up his eyes and mimicking their manner, as he said they used to pray. Baxter’s counsel interposed. ‘Polfexen,’ says Jeffreys, ‘ I know you well. I will set a mark upon you; you are the patron of the faction. This is an old rogue who has poisoned the world with his Kidder minster doctrine. Don’t we know how he preached formerly? “Curse ye Meroz; curse them bitterly that come not to the help of the Lord against the mighty.” He encouraged all the women and maids to bring their bodkins and thimbles to carry on their war against the king of ever blessed memory. An old schismatical knave, a hypocritical villain.’ ‘I beseech your lordship,’ said Polfexen, ‘suffer me a word for my client. It is well known to all intelligent men of this age and nation that those things do not apply to the character of Mr. Baxter. My lord, Mr. Baxter’s loyal and peaceable spirit, King Charles would have rewarded with a bishopric when he came in if he would have conformed.’

‘Aye, aye,’ said the judge, ‘we know that; but what ailed the old blockhead, the unthankful old villain, that he would not conform? Was he wiser and better than other men? He hath been ever since the spring of the faction. I am sure he hath poisoned the world with his linsey-woolsey doctrine; a conceited, stubborn, fanatical dog. Hang him! This old fellow hath cast more reproach upon the constitution and discipline of our Church than will be wiped off for a hundred years; but I’ll handle him for it, by God! He deserves to be whipped through the city.’

Let us blush for the days when that trial took place; blush that the bench of English justice was filled by so drunken and disgraceful a buffoon—blush that the throne of England was filled by a man of a more depraved character than the judge.

Jeffreys was fond of whipping, and he was desirous that Baxter should be flogged through the city; but the sentence was ultimately fixed at a fine of £500—a tolerable sum to pay for telling a mild piece of truth. This was one of the first acts of the gentle reign of James II; and it was early in the administration of his Lord Chief Justice, but it was a type of both; —mercifully both were short. Jeffreys danced a sort of bloody hornpipe through England when he went on circuit; while his white lipped master taught for a brief year or two that love and forgiveness had no place in his Christian code; then the magnanimity of England sent both master and man packing.

“For two years Baxter continued in prison. We were walking once with Elihu Burritt over York Castle, where George Fox was confined, and when he saw the comfort of all the prisoners, their clean cells and raiment and food, he said, ‘Ah, poor dear George Fox; dear Bunyan and Baxter; how very thankful they would have been to have had such a comfortable place as this!’ In truth, perhaps, prison would not be very irksome to a man like Baxter.”

In those days the saints expected it—they took pen, ink, and paper, and a book or two, and went into jail as if they were going home.

The accounts given to us of Baxter, in prison, are interesting. The old man wrought away with his pen still. His Puritan friends came to see him. ‘We interrupt you,’ said they once; ‘Of course you do,’ said he; ‘but never mind, go on.’ A man like that would not feel the shackles so much as many men.

We confess we like best to look at Baxter in prison. The dear old man; and how beautiful his words are in those closing hours. ‘I wish,’ he says, ‘all over-sharp passages were expunged from my writings, and I ask forgiveness of God and man.’

Blessings on thee, thou dear old teacher, thou shalt have for that word, not our forgiveness only, but our undying respect. He says that all mankind appear more equal to him; the good not to appear so good as he once thought, nor the bad so evil, and that in all there is more room for grace, to make advantage of, and more to testify for God and holiness, than he once believed. ‘I less admire,’ he continues, ‘ gifts of utterance, and the bare profession of religion than I once did, and have now much more charity for those who, by want of gifts, do make an obscure profession.’ Again, ‘When God forgiveth me, I cannot forgive myself, especially for my rash words and deeds, by which I have seemed less tender and kind than I should have been to my near and dear relations, whose love abundantly obliged me. When such are dead, though we never differed in point of interest, or any other matter, every sour, or cross, or provoking word, which I gave them, maketh me almost irreconcilable to myself, and tells me how repentance brought some of old to pray to the dead whom they had wronged, to forgive them, in the hurry of their passion.’ Grieve not—weep not thou brave and tender spirit!

Cheer up, Richard!—time is short—the cross is heavy, but you have not far to carry it! Dear old father, it is but a step or two more, and even now beautiful eyes are ‘waiting on the opposite banks of the river, in the house of youth and life, to smile forgiveness on thee for every word, forgotten indeed by them, though so keenly remembered by thee!

At length he was restored to freedom. He could not pay the fine, and so he was liberated; but when he was urged to sign a declaration of thanks to James II., the sternness of his ancient knighthood returned. His heart was softened, but his soul was perhaps, therefore, even stronger; he would not commend that infamous act of intolerant toleration, by which he and many others were only made the cat’s paw for the destruction of all English liberty and freedom. We respect and love the brave old heart of oak in that act as much as in any heroism of his noble life. Seventy years of age. Sick, infirm, bankrupt and beggared by the act of a succession of governments and of kings, he was firm and unshaken. He lived to see the Stuarts fly, and fly, thank God, forever!

He died in 1694. ‘I have,’ said he, ‘great pain; there is no use arguing against that. I care not; I have peace— peace— I have peace.’ A little while after they asked him how he was, and he replied, ‘Almost well.’ To the last he continued singing, when his sleep was broken in the night, ‘then,’ says his friend Silvester, ‘he sung much, nay, he believingly expected that his angelical convoy would conduct him through all the intermediate regions to his heavenly Father’s house, with those melodious hallelujahs or with something equally delightful.’

Then, too, he chanted these last verses. They ring like a glorious farewell to earth, and all hail to Everlasting Rest.”


My soul, go boldly forth,
Forsake this sinful earth;
What hath it been to thee
But pain and sorrow?
And thinkest thou it will be
Better to-morrow?

Look up towards heaven and see,
How vast those regions be,
Where blessed spirits dwell—
How pure and lightful I
But earth is near to hell,—
How dark and frightful!

Here life is but a spark,
Scarce shining in the dark;
Life is the element there
Which souls reside in;
Much like as air is here,
Which we abide in.

Jerusalem above—
Glorious in light and love,
Is mother of us all;
Who shall enjoy them?
The wicked hellward fall,—
Sin will destroy them.

God is Essential love,
And all the saints above
Are like unto him made—
Each in his measure;
Love is their life and trade,
And their constant pleasure.

Love flames in every breast,
The greatest and the least;
Strangers to this sweet rest
There are not any;
Love leaves no place for strife—
Makes one of many.

Lord Jesus, take my spirit!
I have thy love and merit
Take home thy wandering sheep—
For thou hast sought it;
This soul in safety keep,
For thou hast bought it.

Just a Bit O’ History…Psalm 91. A promise of God to those that love him, know him, and trust in him to deliver them, and give them immortal glory.


Psalm 91

Theodore Beza relates that, in his younger years, he was one day in the church of Charenton, and heard the 91st Psalm expounded.

It came home to him with power, and he was enabled to close with the 2nd verse: ‘I will say of the Lord, he is my refuge and my fortress: my God; in him will I trust.’ At his death he declared to his Christian friends that, in the after changes of his life, he found the promises one by one fulfilled. In the civil wars, then so fierce in France, he was kept in a composed spirit, and had most convincing deliverances from most imminent hazards. ‘And now,’ he said, ‘I have no more to wait for but the fulfilling of these last words of the psalm, “I will show him my salvation,” which with confidence I look for.'” Beza was born 1519, and died 1605. In early life he was light-minded and devoted to worldly pleasure, but, after the change he records, he became, next to Calvin, the most influential leader in the Reformed Church. His long life was spent in preaching, writing and administration, with a diligence peculiar to that age. His translation of the New Testament into Latin came into universal use among Protestants; and the French Psalter, which had such an effect on the spirit of the Huguenots, owes more than a half of its version to his poetic genius, the rest being the work of Clement Marot.

The church of Charenton, associated with the memory of Beza, and many of the most eminent ministers of the French Reformation, was an immense structure in the suburbs of Paris, near the junction of the Seine and Marne, where liberty for Protestant worship was enjoyed. Few edifices ever gathered round them memories of so many eloquent and devoted preachers and pious worshippers. At last, when the Edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV., it was razed to the ground amid the tears and groans of the despairing Huguenots. A picture of the scene, struck off and circulated in numberless prints, with reference to Ps. 74, ver. 7, served to keep alive their grief and love: ‘They have cast fire into thy sanctuary; they have defiled by casting down the dwelling-place of thy name to the ground.’ A century afterwards the rebound of the blow shattered the French monarch’s throne.

Whether or not the imagery of the Psalm was in part drawn from the Passover Night when the destroying Angel passed through Egypt while the faithful and obedient Israelites were sheltered by God, we cannot say. 

This we do know that the Psalm is one of the most excellent of this kind ever written. “It is impossible to imagine anything more sober, more beautiful, more profound, or more ornamental. Could the Latin or any modern language express thoroughly all the beauties and elegancies as well as of the words as of the sentences, it would not be difficult to persuade the reader that we have no poem, either in Greek or in Latin, comparable to this Hebrew ode.

As the Psalm is without title, or name of author, or date of composition, we cannot with certainty assign it to a particular period or person.  Whoever wrote it sometimes speaks in the first person, 91:1, 2, 9 and sometimes addresses his promises to the godly man, or to the nation, in the second person, 91:3-8, 9-13.  Then God himself is presented as the speaker, 91:14-16. 

Jewish scholars in later Old Testament days felt that when the author’s name did not appear at the head of the Psalm that it could be assigned to the writer of the previous Psalm, which, in this case, would be Moses, The Man of God. 

In fact, many expressions used in Psalm 91 are similar to those Moses used in Deuteronomy, and the internal evidence, from the particular idioms, would point towards the Law-giver as the Composer.

D.L. Moody, the American evangelist who rocked two continents nearer to God, held Psalm 91 as his favorite.  When in November, 1892, he and his fellow passengers on the steamship Spree were threatened by a billowy grave, he preached to a most attentive audience from the words found in verses 14 to 16 of this Psalm.  They called upon the Lord and he answered them and delivered them.

Bryan W. Proctor’s poem on this last verse is most apt, the opening stanza of which reads—

They err who measure life by years,
With false of thoughtless tongue;
Some hearts grow old before their time,
Others are always young.
Tis not the number of the lines
Of life’s fast filling page,
Tis not the pulse’s added throbs
Which constitute their age.

When God satisfies those who dwell in the secret place of the Most High with His fore-ordained length of days, then, when Time ends and Eternity begins, He will show them His Salvation.   Theirs will be the full revelation of His Love, grace, and glory.  Now, we only know in part.  Horatius Bonar gave us this expressive poem on the phrase, With Long Life—

He liveth long who liveth well!
All other life is short and vain;
He liveth longest who can tell
Of living most for heavenly gain.
He liveth long who liveth well!
All else is being flung away;
He liveth longest who can tell
Of true things truly done each day.

Psalm 91

1599 Geneva Study Bible

1 Who so dwelleth in the secret of the most High, shall abide in the shadow of the Almighty.
2 I will say unto the Lord, O my hope, and my fortress: he is my God, in him will I trust.
3 Surely I will deliver thee from the snare of the hunter, and from the noisome pestilence.
4 He will cover thee under his wings, and thou shalt be sure under his feathers: his truth shall be thy shield and buckler.
5 Thou shalt not be afraid of the fear of the night: nor of the arrow that flieth by day:
6 Nor of the pestilence that walketh in the darkness: nor of the plague that destroyeth at noon day.
7 A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand, but it shall not come near thee.
8 Doubtless with thine eyes shalt thou behold and see the reward of the wicked.
9 For thou hast said, The Lord is mine hope: thou hast set the most High for thy refuge.
10 There shall none evil come unto thee, neither shall any plague come near thy tabernacle.
11 For he shall give his Angels charge over thee to keep thee in all thy ways.
12 They shall bear thee in their hands, that thou hurt not thy foot against a stone.
13 Thou shalt walk upon the lion and asp: the young lion, and the dragon shalt thou tread under feet.
14 Because he hath loved me, therefore will I deliver him: I will exalt him because he hath known my Name.
15 He shall call upon me, and I will hear him: I will be with him in trouble: I will deliver him, and glorify him.
16 With long life will I satisfy him, and show him my salvation.  

Taken adapted from, Psalms: A Devotional Commentary, written by Herbert Lockyer, Sr.
Taken from, “The Psalms in History and Biography,” written by John Ker,

The Scratch in the Window Pane and a Witness to a Friend


In 1775, George Whitefield stopped for several days at the house of a General…

…in Providence, Rhode Island. The general, Mr Thomas Fanning, his wife, son, and three daughters were serious, but not very religious. Whitefield departed from his usual custom, which was to address the residents in the house where he stayed individually concerning the welfare of their souls.

The last evening came, and the last night he was to spend there. He retired to rest, but the Spirit of God came to him in the night, saying, “O man of God, if these people perish, their blood be on your head.” He listened, but the flesh said, “Do not speak to these people. They are so good and so kind that you could not say a harsh thing to them.”

He rose and prayed. The sweat ran down his brow. He was in fear and anxiety. At last a happy thought struck him. He took his diamond ring from his finger, went up to the window, and wrote these words upon the glass, “One thing is needful” He could not summon courage to say a word to the inmates, but went his way. No sooner was he gone than the general, who had a great veneration for him, went into the room be had occupied, and the first thing that struck his attention was the sentence upon the window, “One thing is needful.” That was exactly his case, and the Spirit of God blessed it to his heart.

My dear friend, do you also fear to tell others about Christ?  Is it difficult for you when in a room of people important to you, to draw attention to the things of God?  Are you ever tempted to simply look the other way, when you know you should confront someone about that which would please God?  If the answer is yes, does not the Holy Spirit even now warn you to speak boldly for Christ, and hold not back?

I would urge you to examine yourself and see clearly what is holding you back….. Is it some sin? 

Is it fear of what other people may say of you, or think about you?  Are you afraid that you might lose your status in your company, or be shunned by your friends?   I ask these questions of you, not to condemn you but to point you to Christ. To bring those things out into the open that secretly hold you back from being the fearless witness for Him, that Christ wants you to be.

Is this important? Yes.  Yes, it is very important. And I want to close with these solemn words of our master.

“Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven. But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven.” –Matthew 10:32-33

There, there it is out in the open. What will you choose?  Will you not confess Christ before all.  I pray that you will confess Christ, and do so fearlessly.


The above picture is the exact window pane, and message, that George Whitefield wrote.

When they burned down the pastor’s house…


John Wesley…

The father of the well-known founder of Methodism, at one point lived in Epworth in Lincolnshire. It was a large parish, containing about two thousand souls; but on going to take the charge of it, he found the people in a depraved and immoral state; and the zeal with which he performed his duty in admonishing them of their sins, excited a spirit of diabolical hatred in those whom it failed to reclaim. There on the 17th of June, 1703, his second son John was born.

“The wretches who hated their pastor, had twice attempted without success to set his house on fire; they succeeded in a third attempt. At midnight some burning pieces of wood fell upon his daughter and awoke her. At the same time Mr. Wesley, hearing a cry of fire from the street, started. His wife was very ill at the time, and therefore slept in another room. Bidding her and the two eldest girls shift for themselves, he burst open the nursery door, where the maid lay with five children: she snatched up the youngest, and bade the rest follow her; the three elder did; but John, who was at this time six years old, was not awakened by all this; and in the alarm he was forgotten. By the time they had reached the hall, the flames were all round them, and Mr. Wesley then found that the keys of the door were above stairs. He ran and recovered them a minute before the staircase took fire.

When the door was opened, a strong northeast wind drove the flames in with such violence that none could stand against them. Some of the children however got through the windows, others through a little door into the garden. Unable to do either, owing to the state in which she then was, Mrs. Wesley, after three times attempting it in vain, rushed through the flames into the street, naked as she was, and escaped with some slight scorching of the head and face.

At this time, the child was heard to cry in the nursery: until that moment he had not been remembered. The father ran to the stairs, but they were now so nearly consumed that they could not bear his weight; and, being utterly in despair, he fell on his knees in the hall, and in agony recommended the soul of the child to God.

John, meantime, who had been awakened by the light, ran to the door, and finding it impossible to escape there, climbed up upon a chest that stood near the window. He was seen from the yard: there was no time to fetch a ladder; but it was happily a low house; one man was hoisted up upon the shoulders of another, and was then able to take him out at the window; a moment later, and it would have been too late: the whole roof fell in; hut it fell inward, or they must have been all crushed together.

When the child was carried into the house, where the parents were, the father cried out, ‘Come neighbors, let us kneel and give thanks to God! He has given me all my eight children; let the house go; I am rich enough!’ This providential escape, was ever remembered by John Wesley through life, with the deepest gratitude. Under one of his portraits, there is the representation of a house in flames, with this motto, ‘Is not this a brand plucked out of the fire?”‘

Taken and adapted form, “Anecdotes; accompanied with observations”
Written by, John Thornton
Published in 1821


Taken and adapted from, “Christ A Complete Saviour”
Written by John Bunyan


I.  Are they that are justified by Christ’s blood such as have need yet to be saved by his intercession? Then from hence it follows that justification will stand with imperfection. It doth not therefore follow that a justified man is without infirmity; for he that is without infirmity—that is, perfect with absolute perfection, has no need to be yet saved by an act yet to be performed by a mediator and his mediation.

When I say, justification will stand with imperfection, I do not mean that it will allow, countenance, or approve thereof; but I mean there is no necessity of our perfection, of our personal perfection, as to our justification, and that we are justified without it; yea, that that, in justified persons, remains. Again; when I say that justification will stand with imperfection, I do not mean that in our justification we are imperfect; for in that we are complete; ‘we are complete in him’ who is our justice. (Col 2:10) If otherwise, the imperfection is in the matter that justifieth us, which is the righteousness of Christ. Yea, and to say so would conclude that wrong judgment proceedeth from him that imputeth that righteousness to us to justification, since an imperfect thing is imputed to us for justification. But far be it from any that believe that God is true to imagine such a thing; all his works are perfect, there is nothing wanting in them as to the present design.

[Quest.] But what then do we mean when we say, justification will stand with a state of imperfection?

Answ. Why, I mean that justified men are yet sinners in themselves, are yet full of imperfections; yea, sinful imperfections. Justified Paul said, ‘I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing.’ (Rom 7:18) While we are yet sinners, we are justified by the blood of Christ. Hence, again, it is said, ‘he justifieth the ungodly.’ (Rom 4:5, 5:8, 9) Justification, then, only covereth our sin from the sight of God; it maketh us not perfect with inherent perfection. But God, for the sake of that righteousness which by his grace is imputed to us, declareth us quit and discharged from the curse, and sees sin in us no more to condemnation.

And this is the reason, or one reason, why they that are justified have need of an intercessor—to wit, to save us from the evil of the sin that remains in our flesh after we are justified by grace through Christ, and set free from the law as to condemnation.

Therefore, as it is said, we are saved; so it is said, ‘He is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.’ The godly, for now we will call them the godly, though there is yet abundance of sin in them, feel in themselves many things even after justification by which they are convinced they are still attended with personal, sinful imperfections.

(1.) [Imperfect in their feelings and inclinations.]— They feel unbelief, fear, mistrust, doubting, despondings, murmurings, blasphemies, pride, lightness, foolishness, avarice, fleshly lusts, heartlessness to good, wicked desires, low thoughts of Christ, too good thoughts of sin, and, at times, too great an itching after the worst of immoralities.

(2.) They feel in themselves an aptness to incline to errors, as to lean to the works of the law for justification; to question the truth of the resurrection and judgment to come; to dissemble and play the hypocrite in profession and in performance of duties; to do religious duties rather to please man than God, who tries the heart.

(3.) They feel an inclination in them, in times of trial, to faint under the cross, to seek too much to save themselves, to dissemble the known truth for the obtaining a little favor with men, and to speak things that they ought not, that they may sleep in a whole skin.

(4.) They feel wearisomeness in religious duties, but a natural propensity to things of the flesh. They feel a desire to go beyond bounds both at board, and bed, and bodily exercise, and in all lawful recreation.

(5.) They feel in themselves an aptness to take the advantage of using of things that are lawful, as food, raiment, sleep, talk, estates, relations, beauty, wit, parts, and graces, to unlawful ends. These things, with many more of the like kind, the justified man finds and feels in himself, to his humbling and often casting down; and to save him from the destroying evil of these, Christ ever liveth to make intercession for him.

[Imperfect in their graces.]—Again; the justified man is imperfect in his graces, and therefore needeth to be saved by the intercession of Christ from the bad fruit that that imperfection yields.

Justifying righteousness is accompanied with graces—the graces of the Spirit. Though these graces are not that matter by and through which we are justified, nor any part thereof, that being only the obedience of Christ imputed to us of mere pleasure and good will; but, I say, they come when justification comes. (Rom 9) And though they are not so easily discerned at the first, they show forth themselves afterwards. But I say, how many soever they are, and how fast soever they grow, their utmost arrivement here is but a state short of perfection. None of the graces of God’s Spirit in our hearts can do their work in us without shortness, and that because of their own imperfections, and also because of the oppositions that they meet with from our flesh.

(1.) Faith, which is the root-grace, the grand grace, its shortness is sufficiently manifest by its shortness of apprehension of things pertaining to the person, offices, relations, and works of Christ, now in the heavenly place for us. It is also very defective in its fetching of comfort from the Word to us, and in continuing of it with us, when at any time we attain unto it; in its receiving of strength to subdue sin, and in its purifyings of the heart, though indeed it doth what it doth in reality, yet how short is it of doing of it thoroughly? Oftentimes, were it not for supplies by virtue of the intercession of Christ, faith would fail of performing its office in any measure. (Luke 22:31, 32)

(2.) There is hope, another grace of the Spirit bestowed upon us; and how often is that also, as to the excellency of working, made to flag? ‘I shall perish,’ saith David; ‘I am cut off from before thine eyes,’ said he. (Psa 31:22) And now where was his hope, in the right gospel discovery of it? Also all our fear of men, and fears of death, and fears of judgment, they arise from the imperfections of hope. But from all those faults Christ saves us by his intercessions.

(3.) There is love, that should be in us as hot as fire. It is compared to fire, to fire of the hottest sort; yea, it is said to be hotter than the coals of juniper. (Cant 8:6, 7) But who finds this heat in love so much as for one poor quarter of an hour together? Some little flashes, perhaps, some at some times may feel, but where is that constant burning of affection that the Word, the love of God, and the love of Christ call for? yea, and that the necessities of the poor and afflicted members of Christ call for also. Ah! love is cold in these frozen days, and short when it is at the highest.

(4.) The grace of humility, when is it? who has a thimbleful thereof? Where is he that is ‘clothed with humility,’ and that does what he is commanded ‘with all humility of mind’? (1 Peter 5:5, Acts 20:19)

(5.) For zeal, where is that also? Zeal for God against sin, profaneness, superstition, and idolatry. I speak now to the godly, who have this zeal in the root and habit; but oh, how little of it puts forth itself into actions in such a day as this is!

(6.) There is reverence, fear, and standing in awe of God’s Word and judgments, where are the excellent workings thereof to be found? And where it is most, how far short of perfect acts is it?

(7.) Simplicity and godly sincerity also, with how much dirt is it mixed in the best; especially among those of the saints that are rich, who have got the poor and beggarly art of complimenting? For the more compliment, the less sincerity. Many words will not fill a bushel. But ‘in the multitude of words there wanteth not sin.’ (Prov 10:19) Plain men are thin come up in this day; to find a mouth without fraud and deceit now is a rare thing. Thus might one count up all the graces of the Spirit, and show wherein every one of them are scanty and wanting of perfection. Now look, what they want of perfection is supplied with sin and vanity; for there is a fullness of sin and flesh at hand to make up all the vacant places in our souls. There is no place in the souls of the godly but it is filled up with darkness when the light is wanting, and with sin so far forth as grace is wanting. Satan, also, diligently waiteth to come in at the door, if Careless has left it a little achare. But, oh! the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, who ever liveth to make intercession for us, and that, by so doing, saves us from all the imperfect acts and workings of our graces, and from all the advantages that flesh, and sin, and Satan getteth upon us thereby.

[Imperfect in their Duties.]—Further, as Christ Jesus our Lord doth save us, by his intercession, from that hurt that would unavoidably come upon us by these, so also, by that we are saved from the evil that is at any time found in any or all our holy duties and performances that is our duty daily to be found in. That our duties are imperfect, follows upon what was discoursed before; for if our graces be imperfect, how can our duties but be so too?

(1.) Our prayers, how imperfect are they! With how much unbelief are they mixed! How apt is our tongue to run, in prayer, before our hearts! With how much earnestness do our lips move, while our hearts lie within as cold as a clod! Yea, and ofttimes, it is to be feared, we ask for that with out mouth that we care not whether we have or no. Where is the man that pursues with all his might what but now he seemed to ask for with all his heart? Prayer is become a shell, a piece of formality, a very empty thing, as to the spirit and life of prayer at this day. I speak now of the prayers of the godly. I once met with a poor woman that, in the greatest of her distresses, told me she did use to rise in the night, in cold weather, and pray to God, while she sweat with fears of the loss of her prayers and desires that her soul might be saved. I have heard of many that have played, but of few that have prayed, till they have sweat, by reason of their wrestling with God for mercy in that duty. But how poorly is it done in our days! We have so many foolish ways to lay out money, in toys and fools’ baubles for our children, that we can spare none, or very little, for the relief of the poor. Also, do not many give that to their dogs, yea, let it lie in their houses until it stinks so vilely that neither dog nor cat will eat it; which, had it been bestowed well in time, might have been a succour and nourishment to some poor member of Christ?

(3.) There is hearing of the Word; but, alas! the place of hearing is the place of sleeping with many a fine professor. I have often observed that those that keep shops can briskly attend upon a twopenny customer; but when they come themselves to God’s market, they spend their time too much in letting their thoughts to wander from God’s commandments, or in a nasty drowsy way. The heads, also, and hearts of most hearers are to the Word as the sieve is to water; they can hold no sermons, remember no texts, bring home no proofs, produce none of the sermon to the edification and profit of others. And do not the best take up too much in hearing, and mind too little what, by the Word, God calls for at their hands, to perform it with a good conscience?

(4.) There is faithfulness in callings, faithfulness to brethren, faithfulness to the world, faithfulness to children, to servants, to all, according to our place and capacity. Oh! how little of it is there found in the mouths and lives, to speak nothing of the hearts, of professors.

I will proceed no further in this kind of repetition of things; only thus much give me leave to say over again, even many of the truly godly are very faulty here. But what would they do if there were not one always at the right hand of God, by intercession, taking away these kind of iniquities?

II.  Are those that are justified by the blood of Christ such, after that, as have need also of saving by Christ’s intercession? From hence, then, we may infer, that as sin, so Satan will not give over from assaulting the best of the saints.

It is not justification that can secure us from being assaulted by Satan: ‘Simon, Simon, Satan has desired to have you.’ (Luke 22:31, 32) There are two things that do encourage the devil to set upon the people of God:—

(1.) He knows not who are elect; for all that profess are not, and, therefore, he will make trial, if he can get them into his sieve, whether he can cause them to perish. And great success he hath had this way. Many a brave professor has he overcome; he has cast some of the stars from heaven to earth; he picked one out from among the apostles, and one, as it is thought, from among the seven deacons, and many from among Christ’s disciples; but how many, think you, nowadays, doth he utterly destroy with his net?

(2.) If it so happeneth that he cannot destroy, because Christ, by his intercession, prevaileth, yet will he set upon the church to defile and afflict it. For (a), If he can but get us to fall, with Peter, then he has obtained that dishonour be brought to God, the weak to be stumbled, the world offended, and the gospel vilified and reproached. Or (b), If he cannot throw up our heels, yet, by buffeting of us, he can grieve us, afflict us, put us to pain, fright us, drive us to many doubts, and make our life very uncomfortable unto us, and make us go groaning to our Father’s house. But blessed be God for his Christ, and for that ‘he ever liveth to make intercession for us.’

III. Are those that are justified by the blood of Christ such as, after that, have need to be saved by Christ’s intercession? Then, hence I infer that it is dangerous going about anything in our own name and strength. If we would have helps from the intercession of Christ, let us have a care that we do what we do according to the word of Christ. Do what he bids us as well as we can, as he bids us, and then we need not doubt to have help and salvation in those duties by the intercession of Christ. ‘Do all,’ says the apostle, ‘in the name of the Lord Jesus.’ (Col 3:17) Oh, but then the devil and the world will be most of all offended! Well, well, but if you do nothing but as in his fear, by his Word, in his name, you may be sure of what help his intercession can afford you, and that can afford you much help, not only to begin, but to go through with your work in some good measure, as you should; and by that also you shall be secured from those dangers, if not temptations to dangers, that those that go out about business in their own names and strength shall be sure to meet withal.

IV. Are those that are justified by the blood of Christ such as, after that, have need of being saved by Christ’s intercession? Then, hence I infer again, that God has a great dislike of the sins of his own people, and would fall upon them in judgment and anger much more severely than he doth, were it not for Christ’s intercession. The gospel is not, as some think, a loose and licentious doctrine, nor God’s discipline of his church a negligent and careless discipline; for, though those that believe already have also an intercessor, yet God, to show his detestation against sin, doth often make them feel to purpose the weight of his fingers. The sincere, that fain would walk oft with God, have felt what I say, and that to the breaking of their bones full oft. The loose ones, and those that God loves not, may be utter strangers as to this; but those that are his own indeed do know it is otherwise.

‘You only have I known’ above all others, says God, ‘therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities.’ (Amos 3:2) God keeps a very strict house among his children. David found it so, Haman found it so, Job found it so, and the church of God found it so; and I know not that his mind is ever the less against sin, notwithstanding we have an Intercessor. True, our Intercessor saves us from damning evils, from damning judgments; but he neither doth nor will secure us from temporal punishment, from spiritual punishment, unless we watch, deny ourselves, and walk in his fear. I would to God that those who are otherwise minded did but feel, for three or four months, something of what I have felt for several years together for base sinful thoughts! I wish it, I say, if it might be for their good, and for the better regulating of their understandings. But whether they obtain my wish or no, sure I am that God is no countenancer of sin; no, not in his own people; nay, he will bear it least of all in them. And as for others, however he may for a while have patience towards them, if, perhaps, his goodness may lead them to repentance; yet the day is coming when he will pay the carnal and hypocrites’ home with devouring fire for their offences.

But if our holy God will not let us go altogether unpunished, though we have so able and blessed an Intercessor, that has always to present God with, on our behalf, so valuable a price of his own blood, now before the throne of grace, what should we have done if there had been no day’s-man, none to plead for us, or to make intercession on our behalf? Read that text, ‘For I am with thee, saith the Lord, to save thee; though I make a full end of all nations whither I have scattered thee, yet will I not make a full end of thee; but I will correct thee in measure, and will not leave thee altogether unpunished.’ (Jer 30:11) If it be so, I say, what had become of us, if we had had no Intercessor? And what will become of them concerning whom the Lord has said already, ‘I will not take up their names into my lips’? (Psa 16:4) ‘I pray not for the world.’ (John 17:9)

V. Are those that are already justified by the blood of Christ yet such as have need of being saved by his intercession? Then, hence, I infer that Christ is not only the beginner, but the completer of our salvation; or, as the Holy Ghost calls him, ‘the author and finisher of our faith,’ (Heb 12:2); or, as it calls him again, ‘the author of eternal salvation.’ (Heb 5:9) Of salvation throughout, from the beginning to the end, from first to last. His hands have laid the foundation of it in his own blood, and his hands shall finish it by his intercession. (Zech 4:9) As he has laid the beginning fastly, so he shall bring forth the headstones with shoutings, and we shall cry, Grace, grace, at the last, salvation only belongeth to the Lord. (Zech 4:7, Psa 3:8, Isa 43:11)

Many there be that begin with grace, and end with works, and think THAT is the only way. Indeed works will save from temporal punishments, when their imperfections are purged from them by the intercession of Christ; but to be saved and brought to glory, to be carried through this dangerous world, from my first moving after Christ till I set my foot within the gates of paradise, this is the work of my Mediator, of my high priest and intercessor; it is he that fetches us again when we are run away; it is he that lifteth us up when the devil and sin has thrown us down; it is he that quickeneth us when we grow cold; it is he that comforteth us when we despair; it is he that obtains fresh pardon when we have contracted sin; and he that purges our consciences when they are loaden with guilt. (Eze 34:16, Psa 145:14)

I know also, that rewards do wait for them in heaven that do believe in Christ, and shall do well on earth; but this is not a reward of merit, but of grace. We are saved by Christ; brought to glory by Christ; and all our works are no otherwise made acceptable to God but by the person and personal excellencies and works of Christ; therefore, whatever the jewels are, and the bracelets, and the pearls, that thou shalt be adorned with as a reward of service done to God in the world, for them thou must thank Christ, and, before all, confess that he was the meritorious cause thereof. (1 Peter 2:5, Heb 13:15) He saves us, and saves our services too. (Rev 5:9–14) They would be all cast back as dung in our faces, were they not rinsed and washed in the blood, were they not sweetened and perfumed in the incense, and conveyed to God himself through the white hand of Jesus Christ; for that is his golden-censer; from thence ascends the smoke that is in the nostrils of God of such a sweet savour. (Rev 7:12–14, 8:3, 4)

VI. Are those that are already justified by the blood of Christ, such as do still stand in need of being saved by his intercession? Then hence I infer again, that we that have been saved hitherto, and preserved from the dangers that we have met with since our first conversion to this moment, should ascribe the glory to Jesus Christ, to God by Jesus Christ. ‘I have prayed that thy faith fail not: I pray that thou wouldest keep them from the evil,’ is the true cause of our standing, and of our continuing in the faith and holy profession of the gospel to this very day. Wherefore we must give the glory of all to God by Christ: ‘I will not trust in my bow,’ said David, ‘neither shall my sword save me. But thou hast saved us from our enemies, and hast put them to shame that hated us. In God we boast all the day long, and praise thy name for ever. Selah’! ‘He always causeth us to triumph in Christ.’ ‘We rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh.’ (Psa 44:6–8, 2 Cor 2:14, Phil 3:3) Thus you see that, both in the Old and New Testament, all the glory is given to the Lord, as well for preservation to heaven as for justification of life. And he that is well acquainted with himself will do this readily; though light heads, and such as are not acquainted with the desperate evil that is in their natures, will sacrifice to their own net. But such will so sacrifice but a while. Sir Death is coming, and he will put them into the view of what they see not now, and will feed sweetly upon them, because they made not the Lord their trust. And therefore, ascribe thou the glory of the preservation of thy soul in the faith hitherto, to that salvation which Christ Jesus our Lord obtaineth for thee by his intercession.

VII. Are those that are already justified by the blood of Christ such as do still stand in need of being saved by his intercession? Then is this also to be inferred from hence, that saints should look to him for that saving that they shall yet have need of betwixt this and the day of their dissolution; yea, from henceforward, even to the day of judgment. I say, they should still look to him for the remaining part of their salvation, or for that of their salvation which is yet behind; and let them look for it with confidence, for that it is in a faithful hand; and for thy encouragement to look and hope for the completing of thy salvation in glory, let me present thee with a few things—

(1.) The hardest or worst part of the work of thy Saviour is over; his bloody work, his bearing of thy sin and curse, his loss of the light of his Father’s face for a time; his dying upon the cursed tree, that was the worst, the sorest, the hardest, and most difficult part of the work of redemption; and yet this he did willingly, cheerfully, and without thy desires; yea, this he did, as considering those for whom he did it in a state of rebellion and enmity to him.

(2.) Consider, also, that he has made a beginning with thy soul to reconcile thee to God, and to that end has bestowed his justice upon thee, put his Spirit within thee, and began to make the unweldable mountain and rock, thy heart, to turn towards him, and desire after him; to believe in him, and rejoice in him.

(3.) Consider, also, that some comfortable pledges of his love thou hast already received, namely, as to feel the sweetness of his love, as to see the light of his countenance, as to be made to know his power in raising of thee when thou wast down, and how he has made thee stand, while hell has been pushing at thee, utterly to overthrow thee.

(4.) Thou mayest consider, also, that what remains behind of the work of thy salvation in his hands, as it is the most easy part, so the most comfortable, and that part which will more immediately issue in his glory, and therefore he will mind it.

(5.) That which is behind is also more safe in his hand than if it were in thine own; he is wise, he is powerful, he is faithful, and therefore will manage that part that is lacking to our salvation well, until he has completed it. It is his love to thee that has made him that ‘he putteth no trust in thee’; he knows that he can himself bring thee to his kingdom most surely; and therefore has not left that work to thee, no, not any part thereof. (Job 5:18, 15:15)

Live in hope, then, in a lively hope, that since Christ is risen from the dead, he lives to make intercession for thee, and that thou shalt reap the blessed benefit of this twofold salvation that is wrought, and that is working out for thee, by Jesus Christ our Lord. And thus have we treated of the benefit of his intercession, in that he is able to save to the uttermost.